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NOTEWORTHY ARTICLES 2002/2003

Neurobiology of Lipids 'Noteworthy' section alerts you about the selected noteworthy original research (not review) articles and meeting reports (published in other journals) on the subject of the Neurobiology of Lipids scope.

The reference to each article may be accompanied by the referee name (a member of the Neurobiology of Lipids editorial board or a journal reader), the authors' key note comments, the date of the 'noteworthy' alert, and NoL letter to editor, and links to related articles (if any).

Please note that 'Noteworthy articles' section of the Neurobiology of Lipids does not make a claim to being most comprehensive and does not aim to substitute other bibliography databases (such as PubMed, for example). We may inadvertently omit certain articles due to a lack of information. If you notice an omission, please contribute your own selection.

Also please note that we aim to bring to your attention uncensored  information related to a particular article, to minimize possible associated bias, and to point you to a fair discussion by providing links to related articles. We request you to critically evaluate information and ground your own opinion on a deep analysis of all available literature. The appearance of a noteworthy article below is not an endorsement or approval of an article experimental approach, content, discussion, conclusion, and/or media interest. Patents/company alert may indicate a competing interest of an author or a commentator.

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19 December 2003

Generation of Viable Cholesterol-Free Mice.
Wechsler A, Brafman A, Shafir M, Heverin M, Gottlieb H, Damari G, Gozlan-Kelner S, Spivak I, Moshkin O, Fridman E, Becker Y, Skaliter R, Einat P, Faerman A, Björkhem I, Feinstein E.
Science 19 Dec 2003 302(5653): 2087.
[FullText] [Authors company press release] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


24 November 2003

Novel putative SREBP and LXR target genes identified by microarray analysis in liver of cholesterol-fed mice.
Maxwell KN, Soccio RE, Duncan EM, Sehayek E, Breslow JL
J Lip Res 2003 44(11): 2109-19.
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Temirbolat Berezov


24 November 2003

Dynamics of membrane lipid domains in neuronal cells differentiated in culture.
Ottico E, Prinetti A, Prioni S, Giannotta C, Basso L, Chigorno V, Sonnino S
J Lip Res 2003 44(11): 2142-52.
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


23 November 2003

Association of aortic atherosclerosis with cerebral b-amyloidosis and learning deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
Li L, Cao D, Garber DW, Kim H, Fukuchi K-i
Am J Pathol 2003 163(6): 2155-64.
[PubMed] [ FullText ] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Ling Li:

"By establishing a mouse model prone to both atherosclerosis and b-amyloidosis, we have shown for the first time that aortic atherosclerosis correlates positively with cerebral b-amyloidosis and that an atherogenic diet is associated with exacerbated spatial learning deficits in APP transgenic mice. Our data demonstrated that overexpression of a mutant form of APP initiates and/or promotes the development of atherosclerosis in a susceptible mouse strain, suggesting a causative role of APP and/or its derivatives in the etiology of atherosclerosis. These findings warrant further investigations of mechanisms by which b-amyloidosis and atherosclerosis are connected, in particular, investigation of the roles of Ab and APP in atherogenesis."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


21 November 2003

Plasma lipid levels in Alzheimer's disease patients treated by Donepezil hydrochloride: a cross-sectional study.
Adunsky A, Chesnin V, Ravona R, Harats D, Davidson M
Arch Gerontol Geriatr Jan-Feb 2004 38(1): 61-8.
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


14 November 2003

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are required for efficient neurotransmission in C. elegans.
Lesa GM, Palfreyman M, Hall DH, Clandinin MT, Rudolph C, Jorgensen EM, Schiavo G.
J Cell Sci 2003 116(24): 4965-67.
[PubMed] [ Journal issue article preview ] [Related NoL: 1 ] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Giovanni Lesa:

"This paper demonstrates that mutant C. elegans animals lacking long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are defective in neurotransmitter release. Using a combination of molecular genetic and pharmacological techniques, we show that LC-PUFAs are specifically required in both serotonergic and cholinergic neurons for their efficient function. Electrophysiological studies reveal that the neuronal defects displayed by LC-PUFA-deficient animals are caused by a decrease in neurotransmitter release. Finally, ultrastructural analysis of synaptic terminals shows that synapses are depleted of synaptic vesicles. Thus, LC-PUFAs are required to maintain a number of synaptic vesicles at presynaptic sites sufficient to support normal neurotransmission."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


14 November 2003

Atorvastatin-induced polyneuropathy.
Silverberg C
Ann Intern Med 2003 139(9): 792-3.
[PubMed] [FullText] [Related articles: 1 ] [Author contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


6 November 2003

Temporal alterations in cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta-protein and apolipoprotein E after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Kay A, Petzold A, Kerr M, Keir G, Thompson E, Nicoll J.
Stroke 6 Nov 2003 (ePub ahead of print) doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000100157.88508.2F
[Abstract/FullText] [Related articles: 1 | 2 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


5 October 2003

Apolipoprotein E genotype and subcortical vascular lesions in older depressed patients and control subjects.
Steffens DC, Trost WT, Payne ME, Hybels CF, and MacFall JR
Biol Psych 1 Oct 2003 54(7): 674-681.
[PubMed] [ FullText at Science Direct ] [Related articles: 1 | 2 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Ilya Reznik


5 October 2003

The apolipoprotein E e4 allele and antidepressant efficacy in cognitively intact elderly depressed patients.
Greer M. Murphy GM Jr, Kremer C, Rodrigues H, Schatzberg AF, and Mirtazapine versus Paroxetine Study Group
Biol Psych 1 Oct 2003 54(7): 665-673.
[PubMed] [ FullText at Science Direct ] [Related articles: 1 | 2 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Ilya Reznik


3 October 2003

Local regulation of fat metabolism in peripheral nerves.
Verheijen M.H.G, Chrast R, Burrola P, Lemke G.
Genes Dev. Oct 2003 17(19): 2450-64
[Abstract/FullText] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Mark Verheijen:

"We performed microarray analyses using mRNAs isolated from developing mouse sciatic nerves. Unexpectedly, we found that many genes involved in lipid metabolism are maximally expressed in the mature nerve, after the myelination of axons by Schwann cells is completed; most of these late-onset genes are expressed by adipocytes, which make up the bulk of the epineurium. However, several genes, including SREBP-1, SREBP-2 and Lpin1, are also expressed in the endoneurium. Most interestingly, we found that Lpin1 null mutations lead to lipoatrophy of the epineurium, and to the dysregulation of a battery of genes required for the regulation of storage lipid metabolism in both the endoneurium and peri/epineurium. Together with the observation that these mutations also result in peripheral neuropathy, our findings demonstrate a crucial role for local storage lipid metabolism in mature peripheral nerve function."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


3 October 2003

Changes in the levels of cerebral and extracerebral sterols in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Heverin M, Bogdanovic N, Lutjohann D, Bayer T, Pikuleva I, Bretillon L, Diczfalusy U, Winblad B, Bjorkhem J
J Lip Research 2004 45(1): p. 186-193 (ePub 1 Oct 2003) doi: 10.1194/jlr.M300320-JLR200
[Abstract/FullText] [Cited NoL article] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


27 September 2003

Accumulation of flotillin-1 in tangle-bearing neurones of Alzheimer's disease.
Girardot N, Allinquant B, Langui D, Laquerriere A, Dubois B, Hauw JJ, Duyckaerts C
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol Oct 2003 29(5): 451-461
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


23 September 2003

Exclusively targeting b-secretase to lipid rafts by GPI-anchor addition up-regulates b-site processing of the amyloid precursor protein.
Cordy JM, Hussain I, Dingwall C, Hooper NM, Turner AJ
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 22 Sept 2003 (ePub ahead of print) doi:10.1073/pnas.1635130100
[Abstract/FullText] [ Related articles: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Tony Turner:

"This paper lends direct support to the hypothesis that cholesterol levels may correlate with amyloid peptide accumulation in the brain. The study shows that the initial step in forming the Abeta peptide, catalysed by beta-secretase (BACE), can be dramatically enhanced by guiding the beta-secretase into cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid rich raft domains in the membrane. This targeting of BACE was achieved by tagging the enzyme with a glycolipid (GPI) anchor. Cholesterol depletion reversed the enhancement in BACE activity. These data provide yet further evidence that lipid rafts may be a critical site for amyloid generation and that raised cholesterol levels are a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


16 September 2003

Blockade of HMG-CoA reductase activity causes changes in microtubule-stabilizing protein tau via suppression of geranylgeranylpyrophosphate formation: implications for Alzheimer's disease.
Meske V, Albert F, Richter D, Schwarze J, Ohm TG
Eur J Neurosci Jan 2003 17(1): p. 93-102
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Luisa Diomede


26 August 2003

Carboxyl-terminal-truncated apolipoprotein E4 causes Alzheimer's disease-like neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits in transgenic mice.
Harris FM, Brecht WJ, Xu Q, et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 25 Aug 2003 (ePub ahead of print) doi:10.1073/pnas.1434398100
[Abstract/FullText] [Related articles: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


22 August 2003

Apolipoprotein E Genotype Predicts 24-Month Bayley Scales Infant Development Score.
Wright RO, et al.
Pediatr Res. 20 Aug 2003 (ePub ahead of print) doi: 10.1203/01.PDR.0000090927.53818.DE
[PubMed] [Abstract/FullText] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Robert Wright:

"Among infants living in Mexico, apolipoprotein E4 genotype predicted improved performance on the 24 month infant mental developmental index score of the Bayley Scale of Infant development. The protective effect of the E4 allele may help to explain its high prevalence  worldwide, despite being associated with Alzheimer's Disease in post-reproductive years. The role of lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism in infant development deserves further study."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


19 August 2003

Reelin promotes peripheral synapse elimination and maturation.
Quattrocchi CC, et al.
Science 1 Aug 2003 301(5633): p. 649-53
[PubMed] [Abstract/FullText] [ Related articles: 1 | 2 | 3 ] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Gabriella D’Arcangelo:

"A protein called Reelin is important for the cellular organization of the embryonic brain. Here we report that Reelin is also necessary for the maturation of the neuromuscular junction in the postnatal peripheral nervous system. In Reelin-deficient mice, these junctions are immature and innervated by multiple axons. Reelin, through its protease activity, prunes multiple axons and promotes their withdrawal. This work demonstrates that Reelin has several functions: one is to control neuronal positioning in the embryonic brain, the other is to refine connectivity between nerve cells and muscle fibers and, possibly, between brain cells."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


16 August 2003

Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein interacts with and regulates the cell surface level of Alzheimer's amyloid beta precursor protein.
Noviello C, Vito P, Lopez P, Abdallah M, and D'Adamio L.
J Biol Chem Aug 2003 278(34): p. 31843-7
[PubMed] [Abstract/FullText] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


16 August 2003

Glutamate-binding affinity of Drosophila metabotropic glutamate receptor is modulated by association with lipid rafts.
Eroglu S, Brügger B, Wieland F, and Sinning I.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 15 Aug 2003 (ePub ahead of print) doi:10.1073/pnas.1737042100
[Abstract/FullText] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


16 August 2003

High cholesterol affects platelet APP processing in controls and in AD patients.
Borroni B, Colciaghi F, Lenzi GL, Caimi L, Cattabeni F, Di Luca M, and Padovani A.
Neurobiol Aging Sept-Oct 2003 24(5): p. 631-6
[PubMed] [FullText] [Related articles: 1 | 2 ] [ Related NoLs: 1 | 2 | 3 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


15 August 2003

Trace amounts of copper in water induce b-amyloid plaques and learning deficits in a rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease.
Sparks DL and Schreurs BG.
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 14 Aug 2003 (ePub ahead of print) doi:10.1073/pnas.1832769100
[ PubMed ] [Abstract/FullText] [Related articles: 1 ] [ Related NoLs: 1 | 2 | 3 ] [ Related News: 1 | 2 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


30 July 2003

Statin-associated memory loss: analysis of 60 case reports and review of the literature.
Wagstaff LR, Mitton MW, Arvik BM, Doraiswamy PM.
Pharmacotherapy July 2003 23(7): p. 871-80
[PubMed] [FullText] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


22 July 2003

Mild hypercholesterolemia is an early risk factor for the development of Alzheimer amyloid pathology.
Pappolla MA, et al.
Neurology 22 July 2003 61: p. 199-205
[PubMed] [Correspondence] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


16 July 2003

The production of amyloid-beta peptide is a critical requirement for the viability of central neurons.
Plant LD, Boyle JP, Smith IF, Peers C, Pearson HA.
J Neurosci. 2 July 2003 23(13): p. 5531-5
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


5 July 2003

Presenilin redistribution associated with aberrant cholesterol transport enhances b-amyloid production in vivo.
Burns M, Gaynor K, Olm V, Mercken M, LaFrancois J, Wang L, Mathews PM, Noble W, Matsuoka Y, Duff K.
J Neurosci. 2 July 2003 23(13): p. 5645-9
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


5 July 2003

Spatial and temporal distribution of intracellular free cholesterol in brains of a Niemann-Pick type C mouse model showing hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Implications for Alzheimer's disease.
Treiber-Held S, Distl R, Meske V, Albert F, Ohm TG.
J Pathol. May 2003 200(1): p. 95-103
[PubMed]  [Related articles: 1 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


2 July 2003

Quantitation of two pathways for cholesterol excretion from the brain in normal mice and mice with neurodegeneration.
Xie C, Lund EG, Turley SD, Russell DW, Dietschy JM.
J Lip Res. 6 June 2003 (ePub ahead of print) doi:10.1194/jlr.M300164-JLR2003
[PubMed] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by John Dietschy:

"These studies were done to identify and quantitate the pathways for cholesterol turnover in the central nervous system.  In 7-week-old mice, 1.4 mg/kg body weight was excreted from the CNS each day.  Sixty-four percent of this excretion occured after 24-hydroxylation of the cholesterol molecule.  In a mouse model of neurodegeneration, total excretion increased to 2.3 mg/day per kg, but only 22 percent of this involved 24-hydroxylation.  Thus, at least two pathways are involved in cholesterol turnover in the brain, and in the presence of neurodegeneration the 24-hydroxylase-independent pathway predominates."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


2 July 2003

Expression of LXR target genes decreases cellular amyloid beta peptide secretion.
Sun Y, Yao J, Kim TW, Tall AR.
J Biol Chem. 16 May 2003 (ePub ahead of print) doi: 10.1074/jbc.M300760200
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


2 July 2003

Gene microarrays in hippocampal aging: statistical profiling identifies novel processes correlated with cognitive impairment.
Blalock EM, Chen KC, Sharrow K, Herman JP, Porter NM, Foster TC, Landfield PW.
J Neurosci. 1 May 2003 23: p. 3807-19
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


26 April 2003

Casting metal nanowires within discrete self-assembled peptide nanotubes.
Reches M, Gazit E.
Science. 25 April 2003 300: p. 625-7
[PubMed] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Ehud Gazit:

"We demonstrated that the diphenylalanine core-recognitions motif of the beta-amyloid polypeptide can form stiff and elongated peptide nanotubes. The formation of extremely well-ordered structures by such a small peptide is consistent with our hypothesis on the role of aromatic interactions in many cases of amyloid fibrils formation. We suggested that aromatic interaction can provide both energetic contribution as well as order and directionality in the process of amyloid self-assembly due to their restricted binding geometry. The results are also consistent with the suggestion made by the late Nobel laureate Max Perutz in one of his very last articles, that amyloid fibrils are water-filled nanotubes."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


25 April 2003

Determination of plasma membrane fluidity with a fluorescent analogue of sphingomyelin by FRAP measurement using a standard confocal microscope.
Klein C, Pillot T, Chambaz J, Drouet B.
Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. March 2003 11(1): p. 46-51
[PubMed] [Authors: contact | web site ]
 
Keynote by Christophe Klein:

"Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) is a useful method to study the fluidity of plasma membranes. The availability of modern confocal microscopes makes this technique easy to use. In this paper we describe the protocol that we developed with a Zeiss LSM510 to measure the lateral diffusion of lipid in living cell membranes. As a test experiment, we measured the increase of diffusion of NBD-sphingomyelin upon cholesterol depletion induced by methyl-b-cyclodextrin. We successfully applied this method to study the effects of non-fibrillar Ab peptide on membrane fluidity (Sponne et al., J. Biol. Chem. 2003; 278:3437-3445)."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


25 April 2003

Plasma vitamin C, cholesterol and homocysteine are associated with grey matter volume determined by MRI in non-demented old people.
Whalley LJ, Staff RT, Murray AD, Duthie SJ, Collins AR, Lemmon HA, Starr JM, Deary IJ.
Neurosci Lett. 8 May 2003 341(3): p. 173-6
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


22 April 2003

Common Structure of Soluble Amyloid Oligomers Implies Common Mechanism of Pathogenesis.
Kayed R, Head E, Thompson JL, McIntire TM, Milton SC, Cotman CW, Glabe CG.
Science. 18 April 2003 300: p. 486-9
[PubMed] [ Correspondence: 1 | 2 ] [ Related articles and meeting reports: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 ] [Authors: contact | web site ]

Beware that this article lacks competing financial interest declaration: Related reports 1 | 2 | 3

selected by Alexei Koudinov


22 April 2003

Reduction in Levels of 24S-Hydroxycholesterol by Statin Treatment in Patients With Alzheimer Disease.
Vega GL, Weiner MF, Lipton AM, Von Bergmann K, Lutjohann D, Moore C, Svetlik D
Arch Neurology Apr 2003; 60(4): 510-5.
[PubMed] [ Abstract at Arch Neurol ] [Related articles: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Ilya Reznik



18 April 2002

Lipid Rafts in the Maintenance of Synapses, Dendritic Spines, and Surface AMPA Receptor Stability.
Hering H, Lin C-C, Sheng M.
J Neurosci. 15 April 2003 161(2): p. 621-30
[Abstract] [Related artiscles: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 ] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Heike Hering:

"Cholesterol/sphingolipid rafts are implicated in protein trafficking, cell signaling and in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Depletion of cholesterol/sphingolipids in cultured hippocampal neurons leads to a gradual loss of synapses and spines, which is a central feature of neurodegenerative diseases caused by disordered cholesterol metabolism. Our data suggest that a major function of cholesterol and sphingolipids in neurons is to support lipid rafts, and that lipid rafts are important for normal synapse density and morphology."

selected by Temirbolat Berezov


18 April 2002

CNS synaptogenesis promoted by glia-derived cholesterol.
Mauch DH, Nagler K, Schumacher S, Goritz C, Muller EC, Otto A, Pfrieger FW.
Science. 9 Nov 2001 294: p. 1354-7.
[PubMed] [Related articles: 1 | 2 ] [Correspondence] [Authors contact]

selected by Temirbolat Berezov


18 April 2002

Essential role for cholesterol in synaptic plasticity and neuronal degeneration.
Koudinov AR, Koudinova NV.
FASEB J. 2001 15(10): p. 1858-60
[PubMed] [FullText] [Synopsis] [Related articles: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 ] [Authors: contact | web site ]
 
Keynote by Alexei R. Koudinov:

"We experimentally modelled neuronal cholesterol metabolism disbalance by acute biochemical increase of the turnover of cholesterol in rat hippocampal slices. Such an experimental set up impairs the redistribution of cholesterol from one cell to another via lipoprotein transport. While increasing cholesterol removal or immediately thereafter, we evoked and recorded two brain waveforms, paired pulse facilitation (PPF) or long-term potentiation (LTP), which are indicative of neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity, respectively. We found that the lack of cholesterol supply to neurons impaired PPF and LTP. From additional immunofluorescent analysis of the slices, we demonstrated that cholesterol disbalance also caused neurodegeneration of hippocampal neural cell processes and the appearance of exessive tau phosphorylation in the mossy fibers. We also showed that LTP causes local (at the recording site) increase in lipids synthesis, indicating that synaptic plasticity depends on activity-dependent membrane lipid homeostasis modulation."

selected by Temirbolat Berezov


31 March 2003

Isolation and Lipid Characterization of Cholesterol-Enriched Fractions in Cortical and Nuclear Human Lens Fibers.
Rujoi M, Jin J, Borchman D, Tang D, and Yappert MC.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. April 2003 44(4): p. 1634-42
[PubMed] [Related article 1 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


28 March 2003

APP processing and synaptic function.
Kamenetz F, et al.
Neuron 27 March 2003; 37: p. 925-37
[Abstract/FullText] [Related articles 1 | 2 | 3 | ARF news: 1 | 2 ] [Authors contact]

Beware of the preliminary account for this article:

Activity dependent secretion of b-amyloid: roles of b -amyloid in synaptic transmission.
Kamenetz FR, Tomita T, Borchelt DR, Sisodia SS, Iwatsubo T, Malinow R.
Soc Neurosci Abstr 2000 26: p. 491
[Abstract]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


26 March 2003

Membrane potential fluorescence: A rapid and highly sensitive assay for nicotinic receptor channel function.
Fitch RW, Xiao Y, Kellar KJ, and Daly JW.
Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 25 March 2003; epub ahead of print: 10.1073/pnas.0630641100
[PubMed] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Richard W. Fitch:

"Fluorescent measurement of membrane potential changes affords complementary information to that of currently used fluorescent calcium assays and is affected by changes in ionic balance due not only to calcium, but sodium and potassium, which are also passed by nicotinic receptors. In our hands this assay is more sensitive than the analogous calcium assay. This can be particularly important in cell lines with low receptor expression and/or receptor subtypes with low calcium permeability. In several cases we have investigated, calcium fluorescence changes were weak to absent, while membrane potential changes were robust. This method is useful both for pharmacological characterization of cell lines as well as for screening of compounds for nicotinic activity."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


26 March 2003

Sphingolipid storage induces accumulation of intracellular cholesterol by stimulating SREBP-1 cleavage.
Puri V, Jefferson JR, Singh RD, Wheatley CL, Marks DL, and Pagano RE.
J Biol Chem. 25 March 2003; epub ahead of print: 10.1074/jbc.M300304200
[PubMed] [ Authors: contact | web site ]
 
Keynote by Richard E. Pagano:

"This study examines the mechanism of cholesterol elevation in normal human skin fibroblasts induced by treatment with exogenous sphingolipids (SLs).  Elevated cholesterol was derived primarily from increased uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL) which resulted from an up-regulation of LDL receptors (LDLR).  The unesterified cholesterol derived from this LDL accumulated with the exogenous SLs in late endosomes and lysosomes of the treated cells.  These results support a multi-step model in which excess SLs present in endocytic compartments serve as a “molecular trap” for LDL-derived cholesterol, leading to a reduction in cholesterol at the endoplasmic reticulum, induction of SREBP cleavage, and upregulation of LDLR.  Such a mechanism may be responsible for the high levels of intracellular cholesterol seen in SL storage disease cell types."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


26 March 2003

The metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5 is endocytosed by a clathrin-independent pathway.
Fourgeaud L, Bessis A-S, Rossignol F, Pin J-P, Olivo-Marin J-C, and Hemar A.
J Biol Chem. 2003 278(14): p. 12222-12230
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


25 March 2003

Effects of dietary sphingomyelin on central nervous system myelination in developing rats.
Oshida K, Shimizu T, Takase M, Tamura Y, Shimizu T, and Yamashiro Y.
Pediatr. Res. 2003 53(4): p. 589-593
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


25 March 2003

Gene expression in two hepatic cell lines, cultured primary hepatocytes and liver slices compared to the in vivo liver gene expression in rats: possible implications for toxicogenomics use of in vitro systems.
Boess F. et al.
Toxicol. Sci. 25 March 2003; epub ahead of print: 10.1093/toxsci/kfg064.
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


4 March 2003

The formation of highly soluble oligomers of a-synuclein is regulated by fatty acids and enhanced in Parkinson's disease.
Sharon U, et al.
Neuron 20 Feb 2003; 37(4): p. 583-595
[PubMed] [Related articles 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ARF news: 1 ] [Authors contact]

Beware that this article lacks competing financial interest declaration: Related reports 1 | 2 | 3

Beware of earlier report on the same subject:

Exposure to long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids triggers rapid multimerization of synucleins.
Perrin RJ, Woods WS, Clayton DF, George JM
J Biol Chem 9 Nov 2001; 276(45): p. 41958-62
[PubMed] [Related article 1 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


19 February 2003

Cholesterol distribution in the golgi complex of astrocytes is differentially altered by fresh and aged amyloid b-peptide1-42.
Igbavboa U, et al.
J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 12; epub ahead of print: 10.1074/jbc.M301150200
[PubMed] [Related article 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


18 February 2003

Localization of ApoER2, VLDLR and Dab1 in radial glia: groundwork for a new model of reelin action during cortical development.
Luque JM, Morante-Oria J, and Fairen A
Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003 Feb 16; 140(2): p. 195-203
[PubMed] [Related article 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


18 January 2003

Identification of phospholipid scramblase 1 as a novel interacting molecule with b-secretase (BACE).
Kametaka S, et al.
J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 13; epub ahead of print: 10.1074/jbc.M208611200
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


17 February 2003

Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer Disease.
Clare Morris M, et al.
Arch Neurol. 2003 Feb 60: p. 194-200
[Abstract] [Related article 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Ilya Reznik


16 February 2003

Lipid raft-dependent and -independent signaling through HLA-DR molecules.
Bouillon M, Fakhry YE, Girouard J, Khalil H, Thibodeau J, and Mourad W.
J Biol Chem. 2002 Dec 22; epub ahead of print: 10.1074/jbc.M211566200
[PubMed] [Related article 1 | 2 | 3 ] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Walid Mourad:

"Lipid rafts are plasma membrane microdomains that are highly enriched in signaling molecules and that act as signal transduction platforms for many immune receptors. Although MHC class II molecules do not possess any known signaling motifs in their transmembrane domains, they act as signal transducers in addition to playing a critical role in antigen presentation. The relevance of these microdomains with regard to MHC class II-induced signal transduction pathways and APC function was poorly defined. Our results have permitted to show that localization of HLA-DR in these microdomains was crucial for rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of many substrates, especially of Lyn, and cell-cell adhesion, but not for ERK1/2 activation. Accordingly, some MHC class II-induced events require the presence of HLA-DR molecules in lipid rafts, whereas others do not."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


16 February 2003

Fluorescence and multiphoton imaging resolve unique structural forms of sterol in membranes of living cells.
McIntosh AL, Gallegos AM, Atshaves BP, Storey SM, Kannoju D, and Schroeder F.
J Biol Chem. 21 Feb 2003 278(8): p. 6384-6403
[PubMed] [Related article 1 | 2 | 3 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


31 January 2003

22R-Hydroxycholesterol and 9-cis-retinoic acid induce ABCA1 transporter expression and cholesterol efflux in brain cells and decrease Abeta secretion.
Koldamova RP, et al.
J Biol Chem. 2003 Jan 22; epub ahead of print: 10.1074/jbc.M300044200
[PubMed] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Radosveta Koldamova:

"Recent data suggest that high cholesterol level may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a major regulator of peripheral cholesterol efflux and plasma HDL metabolism. In this study, we demonstrated that 22R-hydroxycholesterol and 9-cis-retinoic acid that are ligands for nuclear receptors LXR and RXR increased ABCA1 expression and apolipoprotein-specific cholesterol efflux in neurons and glia. Importantly, these ligands alone or in combination with apolipoprotein A-I caused a substantial reduction in the stability of APP C-terminal fragments and decreased amyloid b (Ab) production. These effects of LXR/RXR ligands may provide a novel strategy to decrease Ab secretion, and consequently reduce amyloid burden in the brain."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


31 January 2003

The receptor-bound N-terminal ectodomain of the amyloid precursor protein is associated with membrane rafts.
Tikkanen R, Icking A, Beicht P, Waneck GL, and Volker H.
Biol Chem. December 2002 383(12): p. 1855-64
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


30 January 2003

Age-related deficits in long-term potentiation are insensitive to hydrogen peroxide: coincidence with enhanced autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.
Watson JB, Khorasani H, Persson A, Huang KP, Huang FL, and O'Dell TJ.
J Neurosci Res. 1 November 2002 70(3): p. 298-308
[PubMed] [Related article 1 | 2 | 3 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


30 January 2003

Hydrogen peroxide modulation of synaptic plasticity
Kamsler A, and Segal M.
J Neurosci. 1 January 2003 23(1): p. 269-76
[PubMed] [Related article 1 | 2 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


28 January 2003

Apolipoprotein E e4 allele, AD pathology, and the clinical expression of Alzheimer's disease.
Bennett DA, et al.
Neurology 28 January 2003 60(2): p. 246-52
[Abstract] [Related article: 1 | 2 | 3 | ARF live discussion: 1 | 2 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


28 January 2003

APOE e4 is a determinant for Alzheimer type pathology in progressive supranuclear palsy.
Tsuboi Y, Josephs KA, Cookson N, and Dickson DW.
Neurology 28 January 2003 60(2): p. 240-5
[PubMed] [Related article: 1 | 2 | ARF live discussion: 1 | 2 ] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Yoshio Tsuboi:

"Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are distinctive neurodegenerative disorders. PSP is characterized by motor abnormalities such as parkinsonism, severe postural instability and supranuclear gaze palsy. There may be a wider spectrum of clinical presentation in PSP including cortical abnormalities and memory dysfunction, sometimes due to overlapping AD pathology. We evaluated AD type pathology and APOE genotype in 173 pathologically proven cases of PSP. Only 26 cases had pathological aging and 14 cases had significant AD pathology, moreover, 19 of these 40 patients carried APOE e4 allele. Our study suggests that Alzheimer type pathology is an independent process unrelated to PSP in cases with both types of pathologies and that APOE e4 is a risk factor for Alzheimer type pathology in PSP."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


28 January 2003

Cholesterol depletion by methyl-b-cyclodextrin blocks cholera toxin transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus in hippocampal neurons.
Shogomori H, Futerman AH
J. Neurochem. 2001 Sept; 78(5): p. 991-9
[PubMed] [Related article: 1 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


20 January 2003

Increased Brain b-Amyloid Load, Phosphorylated Tau, and Risk of Alzheimer Disease Associated With an Intronic CYP46 Polymorphism.
Papassotiropoulos A, et al.
Arch Neurol. 2003 Jan; 60: 113-23
[Abstract] [Commentary] [ARF Live Discussion] [Related NoLs: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | News: AP/ABC | AP/JN | NYT | Psych ] [ Patents ] [Authors contact]

Beware of earlier report on the same subject:

Polymorphism in the cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase gene is associated with Alzheimer's disease.
Kölsch H, et al.
Mol Psychiatry 2002 Feb; 7(8): p. 899-202
[PubMed] [ARF news] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Heike Kölsch:

"Elevated serum cholesterol and presence of at least one ApoE4 allele increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We believe that brain cholesterol is mainly eliminated through the blood-brain-barrier after conversion to 24S-hydroxycholesterol by a cytochrome P450 enzyme, denoted CYP46. We screened the exons 2 and 3 of the CYP46 gene and detected two sequence variations, one of these influenced liquor concentrations of 24S-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol in AD patients and the incidence of AD. It appears that brain cholesterol metabolism plays a more important role in the development of AD than previously assumed."

selected by Alexei Koudinov ; Psychiatry news item selected by Ilya Reznik


14 January 2003

Essential polyunsaturated fatty acid and lipid peroxide levels in never-medicated and medicated schizophrenia patients.
Arvindakshan M, et al.
Biol Psychiatry 2003 Jan 1; 53(1): 56-64.
[PubMed] [Related articles: 1 | 2 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Ilya Reznik


9 January 2003

Amyloidogenic processing of the Alzheimer b-amyloid precursor protein depends on lipid rafts.
Ehehalt R, Keller P, Haass C, Thiele C, and Simons K.
J Cell Biol. 2003 Jan 6; 160(1): 113-23
[PubMed] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Robert Ehehalt:

"There is growing evidence that cholesterol is of particular importance in regulation a- and b-cleavage of APP. We show that lipid rafts, lateral assemblies of cholesterol and sphingolipids, are critically involved in APP processing. From our data we suggest that APP resides in two cellular pools within the membranes, one associated with lipid raft where Ab is generated and one outside rafts where APP is a-cleaved. This model of membrane compartimentation explains how APP could be processed in two mutually exclusive ways and how cholesterol - a key compound of lipid rafts - is participating in the regulation of these processes."

selected by Alexei Koudinov

Noteworthy 2002


24 December 2002

Diet and risk of dementia: Does fat matter? The Rotterdam Study.
Engelhart MJ, et al.
Neurology 24 December 2002 59: p. 1915-21
[PubMed] [Related article: 1 ] [ARF news coverage] [Correspondence] [Authors contact]

Also see earlier report by the same group on the same subject using the Rotterdam study data:

Dietary fat intake and the risk of incident dementia in the Rotterdam Study.
Kalmijn S, et al.
Ann Neurology November 1997 42(5): p. 776-82
[PubMed] [Other Alzheimer's articles from the same group/Rotterdam study] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


22 December 2002

Trafficking of cholesterol from cell bodies to distal axons in Niemann Pick C1-deficient neurons.
Karten B, Vance DE, Campenot RB, and Vance JE.
J Biol Chem. January 2003 278(6): 4168-75 (epub Nov 27, 2002 ahead of print: manuscript M205406200v1)
[PubMed] [Related articles: 1 | 2 ] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Jean E Vance:

"A key characteristic of the neurodegenerative disorder Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease is the accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes due to a defect in intracellular trafficking of cholesterol. Using primary sympathetic neurons from a murine model of NPC disease we show that transport of endogenously-synthesized cholesterol into distal axons is reduced in NPC1-deficient neurons compared to wildtype neurons. Moreover, in contrast to wildtype neurons, NPC1-deficient neurons cannot efficiently utilize low density derived cholesterol for axonal growth when endogenous cholesterol synthesis is inhibited. Together with our previous observation that the cholesterol content of axons is reduced in NPC1-deficient neurons, and our finding that tNPC1 protein is present in both cell bodies and axons, these results implicate a key role for NPC1 in axonal cholesterol transport."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


22 December 2002

An in vitro study of the effects of lovastatin on human fetal brain cells.
Pavlov OV, Bobryshev YuV, Balabanov YuV, and Ashwell K.
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1995 17(1): p. 31-9
[PubMed] [Related articles: 1 | 2 | 3] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


20 December 2002

Structure of the LDL Receptor Extracellular Domain at Endosomal pH.
Rudenko G, et al.
Science. 2002 298(5602): p. 2353-8
[PubMed] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Gabby Rudenko:

"The low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) mediates cholesterol homeostasis in mammalian cells by removing LDL, a cholesterol carrying lipoprotein, from plasma circulation. It was known from biochemical studies that LDL-R binds LDL extracellularly at neutral pH, and then after being endocytosed, discharges its ligand in the endosomes at acidic pH. However the underlying molecular basis for ligand binding and release has been elusive. Using xray crystallography we now show that the LDL-R molecule a long modular molecule is found folded back on itself at endosomal pH, obscuring important ligand binding epitopes from solution. Our crystal structure suggests that at endosomal pH, the C-terminal part of the LDL-R molecule promotes ligand discharge by binding to its N-terminal part via ligand binding modules, thus displacing LDL."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


19 December 2002

Resistance of human cerebrospinal fluid to in vitro oxidation is directly related to its amyloid-beta content.
Kontush A, Donarski N, and Beisiegel U.
Free Radic Res. 2001 35(5): p. 507-17
[PubMed] [Related articles: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Anatol Kontush:

"Amyloid-beta (Ab) peptide is normally secreted by neuronal cells and is present at low concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. The physiological role of Ab secretion, however, is understudied. We found that in 20 control subjects and 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease, the oxidative resistance of CSF samples is directly related to CSF levels of Ab 1-40, Ab 1-42, and ascorbate; and inversely related to the level of fatty acids. Consistent with our recent data (Kontush et al. Free Radic Biol Med. 30, 119, 2001), the findings suggest that, besides ascorbate, Ab is another major physiological antioxidant in the CSF."

selected by Temirbolat Berezov


19 December 2002

Oxidized high-density lipoprotein induces neuron death.
Keller JN, Hanni KB, and Kindy MS.
Exp Neurol. 2002 161(2): p. 621-30
[PubMed] [Related articles: 1 | 2 | 3 ] [Authors contact]

selected by Temirbolat Berezov


19 December 2002

Brain cholesterol pathology is the cause of Alzheimer's disease.
Koudinov AR, and Koudinova NV.
BMJ Clin Med Health Res. 17 November 2001 clinmed2001100005
[FullText] [Related articles: 1 | 2 | 3 ] [ARF Live Discussion] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Alexei Koudinov:

"This is a companion report for our earlier contribution that provided evidence on the essential role for cholesterol in synaptic plasticity and neural degeneration (Koudinov & Koudinova FASEB J 2001 ; Science 2002). In this BMJ Clin Med article we explain why cholesterol homeostasis biological misregulation is the primary cause for several hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease not limited to brain amyloid. We also explain why Alzheimer's changes in neurochemistry of amyloid beta, tau, neuronal cytoskeleton, and oxidative stress reactions may represent physiological transitory mechanisms aiming to compensate impaired brain cholesterol dynamics and/or associated neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity failure (Also see SFN 2002 NoL sessions article). Contribution by others on the role for cholesterol in Alzheimer's disease is available at NoL symposium abstracts' article (Neurobiol Lipids 2002), and the Alzheimer Forum live discussion session (Neurobiol Lipids symposia).

selected by Temirbolat Berezov


16 December 2002

Turnover of synaptic membranes: age-related changes and modulation by dietary restriction.
Ando S, Tanaka Y, Toyoda nee Ono Y, Kon K, and Kawashima S.
J. Neurosci. Res. 2002 70(3): p. 290-7
[PubMed] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Susumu Ando:

"Synapses are actively and continuously remodeled throughout life depending upon brain activities. This synaptic plasticity should be achieved by membrane turnover. In the present report the whole membrane constituents were labeled in vivo with deuterium and the disappearance of the deuterated molecules from synaptic membranes was measured by mass spectrometry. We found that the membrane turnover is changing during aging and that the turnover rates are modulated by dietary restriction. Notably, each membrane lipid or protein component was revealed to respond differently to aging and dietary restriction."

selected by Bruce Teter


16 December 2002

The cytoplasmic domain of the LDL receptor-related protein regulates multiple steps in APP processing.
Pietrzik CU, Busse T, Merriam DE, Weggen S, and Koo EH.
EMBO J. 2002 21(21): p. 5691-700
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


12 December 2002

Modification of the monoaminergic neurotransmitters in frontal cortex and hippocampus by dietary trans alpha-linolenic acid in piglets.
Acar N, Chardigny JM, Berdeaux O, Almanza S, and Sebedio JL.
Neurosci. Lett. 2002 331(3): p. 198-202
[PubMed] [Related NoL article] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Niyazi Acar:

"Heat treatment of vegetable oils induces the isomerization of dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which leads to the formation of trans ALA, but also to the decrease of the bioavailability of cis ALA in the diet. Feeding 24 hours-aged piglets for 14 days with a diet in which a part of ALA was isomerized resulted in increased levels of dopaminergic neurotransmitters (dopamine and its metabolites) in the frontal cortex. Since increasing the dietary levels of cis ALA can easily prevent these changes, the changes may be linked to the decreased bioavailability of cis ALA in the diet rather than to the presence of trans ALA. In the hippocampus, the consumption of trans ALA, associated to control levels of dietary cis ALA induces a depletion of dopamine and an increase of DOPAC levels, suggesting an effect of trans ALA. Therefore, these results suggest that it might be worth to prevent the presence of trans ALA in the diet rather than to correct the levels of cis ALA."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


6 December 2002

Induction and experience-dependent consolidation of stable long-term potentiation lasting months in the hippocampus.
Abraham WC, Logan B, Greenwood JM, and Dragunow M.
J. Neurosci. 1 November 2002 22(21): p. 9626-34
[PubMed] [Related article: 1 ] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Wickliffe Abraham:

"Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is widely regarded as a memory mechanism, but it is not known whether it can last long enough to underlie very long-term memory.  In these experiments, high-frequency stimulation (HFS) paradigms applied to the rat dentate gyrus elicited stable LTP lasting months, and up to at least a year. The maintenance of stable LTP was experience-dependent, since it was reversed when animals were repeatedly exposed to an enriched environment beginning 14 days post-HFS.  However, stable LTP eventually consolidated over time and became resistant to reversal.  Thus, LTP can meet one of the principal criteria for a very long-term memory storage mechanism.  However, under naturalistic environmental conditions, LTP and by extension memories may normally be retained in the hippocampus for only short periods of time."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


5 December 2002

Rhabdomyolysis from the combination of a statin and gemfibrozil: an uncommon but serious adverse reaction.
Kind AH, Zakowski LJ, and McBride PE.
WMJ. 2002 101(7): p. 53-7
[PubMed] [Related article: 1 ] [Related correspondence] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


29 November 2002

Histopathology of corneal changes in lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency.
Viestenz A, Schlotzer-Schrehardt U, Hofmann-Rummelt C, Seitz B, and Kuchle M.
Cornea. 2002 21(8): p. 834-7
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


28 November 2002

The neurodegeneration mutant lochrig interferes with cholesterol homeostasis and Appl processing.
Tschape J-A, Hammerschmied C, Muhlig-Versen M, Athenstaedt K, Daum G, and Kretzschmar D.
EMBO J. 2002 21(23): p. 6367-76
[Abstract/FullText at EMBO J] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Doris Kretzschmar:

"Several recent observations have suggested a connection between cholesterol synthesis and Alzheimer’s disease. We have isolated a Drosophila mutant which shows progressive degeneration of the adult brain, a reduced level of cholesterol ester (while maintaining a normal cholesterol level) and abnormal processing of APPL, the fly homolog of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP). The affected protein, AMP-activated protein kinase, is a regulator of HMG-CoA reductase the key enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. However, Drosophila cannot synthesize cholesterol de novo. Therefore, our data suggest a connection between HMG-CoA reductase, cholesterol ester and APP processing."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


16 November 2002

A secreted soluble form of ApoE receptor 2 acts as a dominant-negative receptor and inhibits Reelin signaling.
Koch S, et al.
EMBO J. 2002 21(22): p. 5996-6004
[PubMed] [Abstract/FullText at EMBO J] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


16 November 2002

Reelin Immunoreactivity in the Adult Primate Brain: Intracellular Localization in Projecting and Local Circuit Neurons of the Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus and Subcortical Regions.
Martinez-Cerdeno V, Galazo MJ, Cavada C, and Clasca F.
Cereb. Cortex 2002 12(12): p. 1298-311
[PubMed] [Abstract/FullText at Cereb Cortex] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Francisco Clascá:

"The paper provides inmunohistochemical evidence at the optic and electron microscope level of the presence of Reelin in the secretory organelles of most projection and local neurons of the neocortex, hippocampus and subcortical structures in the adult primate brain. However, the levels of expression of the protein are markedly different, and specific, for the various neuronal populations. 

In addition, we show large Reelin containing secretory vesicles in some long axonal tracts. These observations reveal major differences in the pattern of Reelin expression between primates and rodents, and suggest that most neuronal circuits in the adult primate brain may be under the putative modulatory role of Reelin on synaptic plasticity."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


16 November 2002

Dual control of caveolar membrane traffic by microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton.
Mundy DI, Machleidt T, Ying Y-s, Anderson RGW, and Bloom GS.
J. Cell Sci. 2002 115(22): p. 4327-39
[PubMed] [Abstract/FullText at J Cell Sci] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


14 November 2002

Evidence That Synaptically Released b-Amyloid Accumulates as Extracellular Deposits in the Hippocampus of Transgenic Mice.
Lazarov O, Lee M, Peterson DA, and Sisodia SS.
J. Neurosci. 15 November 2002 22(22): p. 9785-93
[PubMed] [Related article: 1 ] [ARF news] [ARF Live Discussion] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


14 November 2002

Rab11a and Myosin Vb Regulate Recycling of the M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor.
Volpicelli LA, Lah JJ, Fang G, Goldenring JR, and Levey AI.
J. Neurosci. 15 November 2002 22(22): p. 9776-84
[PubMed] [Abstract/FullText at J Neurosci] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Laura Volpicelli:

"Understanding the mechanisms by which neurons maintain responsiveness to ligand depends on characterizing the intracellular fate of G protein-coupled receptors.  Following agonist-induced internalization, M4 traffics to perinuclear recycling endosomes, and recycles to the cell surface following agonist washout.  Expression of inactive forms of Rab11a and the unconventional myosin Vb, a Rab11a-effector, dramatically impair M4 recycling.  Therefore, Rab11a and myosin Vb play key roles in M4 transit through the recycling pathway."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


22 October 2002

Effects of statins on human cerebral cholesterol metabolism and secretion of Alzheimer amyloid peptide.
Fassbender K, et al.
Neurology 22 October 2002 59(8): p. 1257-58
[PubMed] [Abstract/FullText at Neurology] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


18 October 2002

Induction of the cholesterol transporter ABCA1 in CNS cells by LXR agonists increases secreted Ab levels.
Fukumoto H, Deng A, Irizarry MC, Fitzgerald ML, and Rebeck WG.
J Biol Chem Published online 15 October 2002, 10.1074/jbc.M209085200
[PubMed] [Abstract/FullText at JBC] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


5 October 2002

Liver X receptors in the central nervous system: From lipid homeostasis to neuronal degeneration.
Wang L, Schuster GU, Hultenby K, Zhang Q, Andersson S, and Gustafsson J-A.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2002 99(21): p. 13878-83
First published online 4 October 2002, 10.1073/pnas.172510899
[Abstract at PNAS] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Jan-Åke Gustafsson:

"Deletion of both liver X receptors (LXRalfa and LXRbeta, nuclear receptors known to be important in regulation of cholesterol metabolism) in mice results in severe neuronal degeneration in the CNS. These lesions appear concentrated to specific regions of the brain, encompassing e g pars reticularis of the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, and involve deposition of lipids, astrocyte proliferation, demyelination and occlusion of the ventricles. These lesions become more pronounced as the animals age. These findings are of significant interest in view of the current discussion regarding an association between derangements in cholesterol homeostasis and neurodegenerative diseases, respectively."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


25 September 2002

Cholesterol depletion with physiological concentrations of a statin decreases the formation of the Alzheimer amyloid Abeta peptide.
Buxbaum JD, Geoghagen NS, Friedhoff LT.
J Alzheimers Dis 2001 3(2): p. 221-229
[PubMed] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


25 August 2002

Dentate granule cells in reeler mutants and VLDLR and ApoER2 knockout mice
Drakew A, et al.
Exp Neurol 2002 176(1): p. 12-24
[PubMed] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Alexander Drakew:

"We found that mice defective in one or both of the lipoprotein receptors apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) show abnormalities in the organization and cellular differentiation of granule cells of the dentate gyrus. 

These changes resembled the phenotype of the reeler mutant mouse, which lacks the extracellular matrix protein reelin. Effects were less prominent when only one of the two lipoprotein receptors was absent. This suggests that both ApoER2 and VLDLR are required for reelin signaling in the mouse dentate gyrus. Absence of these receptors in humans may play a role in the pathogenesis of developmental disorders of this brain region."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


20 August 2002

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase mRNA in Alzheimer and control brain.
Yasojima K, McGeer EG, and McGeer PL.
Neuroreport 2001 12(13): p. 2935-8
[PubMed] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Patrick L McGeer:

"There are now multiple epidemiological reports indicating that patients taking statins have a reduced risk of contracting Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical trials are now underway to determine if statins have efficacy in treating AD. Statins inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which among other actions, is rate controlling for cholesterol synthesis. 

It has been hypothesized that aberrations in cholesterol synthesis are fundamental to AD pathology. This suggests that an abnormality in HMG-CoA reductase might be found in AD. Our results, however, indicate, that the mRNA levels of this enzyme are remarkably homogenous in various brain regions and that there is no significant difference between AD cases and normals. The value of statins, if confirmed as preventative or therapeutic agents, is unlikely to be due to correcting some fault in HMG-CoA reductase itself, but in altering the levels of some downstream product or products which may or may not be related to cholesterol biosynthesis."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


31 July 2002

A new role for apolipoprotein E: modulating transport of polyunsaturated phospholipid molecular species in synaptic plasma membranes
Igbavboa U, Hamilton J, Kim HY, Sun GY, and Wood WG.
J Neurochem 2002 80(2): p. 255-61
[PubMed] [FullText at HighWire Press or Blackwell Synergy][Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov


22 June 2002

Scavenger receptor class B type I affects cholesterol homeostasis by magnifying cholesterol flux between cells and HDL
de La Llera-Moya M, et al.
J. Lipid Res. 2001 42: p. 1969-78
[PubMed] [FullText] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Margarita de la Llera-Moya:

"The presence of scavenger receptor SR-BI and its human homologue CLA-I  (CD 36 and LIMPII analogous I) on the cell surface enhances movement of cholesterol into metabolically active cholesterol pools. In addition constitutive expression of these receptors increases the steady-state content of cellular cholesterol and expands a cholesterol pool, which may be associated with the plasma membrane.

These observations are significant because they indicate that: 1) receptor expression can not only modulate several aspects of cholesterol metabolism but also can alter the distribution of cellular cholesterol pools; and 2) the regulation of receptor expression may play an important role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


31 May 2002

Lipoprotein lipase is expressed in rat sciatic nerve and regulated in response to crush injury
Patricia Uelmen Huey, Kathleen C. Waugh, Jacqueline Etienne, and Robert H. Eckel
J. Lipid Res. 2002 43(1): p. 19-25
[PubMed] [FullText] [Authors contact]
 
Keynote by Patricia Uelmen Huey:

"We found that rats subjected to unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury selectively increased the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) within the injured nerve, as determined by enyme activity assays and immunohistochemistry of nerve sections.  LPL increased as early as 2 days after crush injury and remained elevated until at least Day 21.  We propose that LPL may play a role in the re-utilization of lipids released from the degenerating myelin sheath following crush injury."

selected by Alexei Koudinov


31 May 2002

Three lipoprotein receptors and cholesterol in inclusion-body myositis muscle
M. Jaworska-Wilczynska, G. M. Wilczynski, W. K. Engel, D. K. Strickland, K. H. Weisgraber, and V. Askanas
Neurology 2002 58(3): p. 438-445
[PubMed] [FullText] [Correspondence] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov



31 May 2002

Apolipoprotein E e4 is associated with rapid progression of multiple sclerosis
F. Fazekas, et al.
Neurology 2001 57(5): p. 853-857
[PubMed] [FullText] [Authors contact]

selected by Alexei Koudinov



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